CHEMISTRY
Lignite Coal SubBituminous Coal Peat Coal Bituminous Coal Anthracite
Coal and Coke Calculation Protocols
*** Net CV calculation  refer to ASTM D5865 / ISO 1928
*** Moisture conversion to different bases  refer to ASTM D3180 / ISO 1170
1. Bases Conversion Factors:
 Ref: ASTM D3180 / ISO 1170  Conversion to different moisture bases
 Dry factor (converts AD to Dry) (100ADM)/100
Dry = AD / ((100ADM)/100)  AR factor (converts Dry to AR) (100TM)/100
AR = Dry x ((100TM))/100)  DAF factor (converts Dry to DAF) (100Dry Ash)/100
DAF = Dry / ((100Dry Ash)/100)

Where:
TM = Total Moisture
ADM = Air Dried Moisture (Moisture in the Analysis Sample)
AR = As Received Basis
AD = As Determined (Air Dried) Basis
Dry = Dry Basis
DAF = Dry Ash Free Basis
2. Two Stage Total Moisture Formula (Refer to ASTM / ISO):
 Two stage total moisture determination is used when the coal sample is too wet to divide or crush without the potential of loosing significate amounts of moisture.
TMar, % = [RMad, % x (100  FMad, %) / 100] + FMad %
M = Total moisture; FM = Free Moisture; RM = Residual moisture
3. Calorific Value Conversion Factors:
 MJ/kg = kcals/kg / 238.846
 MJ/kg = Btu/lb / 429.923
 kcal/kg = MJ/kg x 238.846
 kcal/kg = Btu/lb / 1.8
 Btu/lb = MJ/kg x 429.923
 Btu/lb = kcals x 1.8
4. CO2 Emission Factor:
 t/CO2/TJ = As Received Carbon x 3.667 x [10,000/NCV(p)] in kJ/kg= As Received Carbon x 3.667 x [2388.46/NCV(p)] in kcal/kg
5. Fuel Ratio:
 Fuel Ratio = Fixed Carbon / Volatile Matter.
6. Hydrogen in Coal, Refer to ASTM 3180 / ISO 1170:
 Inasmuch as hydrogen values may be reported on the basis of containing or not containing the hydrogen in water (moisture) associated with the sample, alternative conversion procedures are defined below:
 Use following conversions to report H, including or excluding H in moisture. Total Hydrogen asdetermined (ad): includes H in the moisture analysis.
 Hydrogen (excluding H in moisture):
H(dry base) = [Total Hydrogen(ad)(AMx0.1119)] x (100/(100AM))  Hydrogen (including H in moisture):
H(ar) = [Total Hydrogen(db) x ((100TM)/100)]+(0.1119*TM)  ISO 1170 reports H as airdried basis excluding H in the analysed moisture:
H(airdried) = Total Hydrogen(asdetermined)  (Analysis Moisture x 0.1119)
Hydrogen and Oxygen Factors based on the atomic weight of H20
Hydrogen = Moisture X 0.1119
Oxygen = Moisture X 0.8881
7. Net Calorific Value (NCV) Conversion Factors:
 Ref: Net Calorific Value (ASTM D586503).
 The heat produced by combustion of a substance at a constant pressure of 0.1 Mpa (1 Atm), with any water formed remaining as vapour.
 ISO 19281995 at constant volume.
Qv, net,m,J/g =( Q gr,v,d  206.0 [ wHd ] ) x (10.01xMT)  (23.05x MT)
Qv, net,m,kcal/kg = ( Q gr,v,d  49.20 [ wHd ] ) x (10.01xMT)  (5.51x MT)
 ISO 19281995 at constant pressure.
Qp, net,m,J/g = { Q gr,v,d  212.2 [ wHd ]  0.8 x [wOd + wNd] } x (1 0.01MT)  24.43 x MT
Qp, net,m,kcal/kg = { Q gr,v,d  50.68 [ wHd ]  0.191 x [wOd + wNd] } x (1 0.01MT)  5.84 x MT
[ wHd ] = H content of the sample less Hydrogen present in the moisture
w(H)d = w(H) x 100/100MT
MT= Total Moisture
 ASTM 5865/3180 at constant pressure
Qp(net)ar,J/g = Qvar(gross)  (215.5 x Har)
Qp(net)ar,Btu/lb = Qvar(gross)  (92.67 x Har)
Qp(net)ar,kcal/kg = Qvar(gross)  (51.47 x Har)
Har = total hydrogen where hydrogen includes hydrogen in Sample Moisture
Har = [(Had0.1119xMad) x (100Mar)/(100Mad)] + 0.1119 x Mar
8. Seyler's Formula:
 Various parameters of Coal can be estimated from the Ultimate Analysis and Calorific Value determinations, using Seyler's formula, and other similar calculations (e.g. Dulong's formula).
 Reference:
* COAL Typology Physics Chemistry Constitution
D.W. Van Krevelen (third edition 1993) Page 47
VMdaf = 10.61Hdaf  1.24Cdaf + 84.15
Hdaf = 0.069 (Qdaf/100+VMdaf)  2.86
Cdaf = [0.59 (Q,daf/100  0.367VMdaf) + 43.4]
** ISO 19281995 Part E.3.3
Estimate of the hydrogen content, calculated using Seyler's Formula
wH = 0.07 x w(V) + 0.000165 x qv,gr,m  0.0285 x [ 100  MT  w(A)
w(H)  is the H content of sample less H contained in moisture, as % mass
w(V)  is the VM content of sample with moisture content MT, as % mass
w(A)  is the ash content of sample with moisture content MT, as% mass
qv,gr,m  is the gross CV of sample with moisture content MT, in joules/g
Note.1** Only valid when the calculated Hdb is greater than 3%
Note.2* Only valid when the Odaf content is less than 15%
Note.3 Can give erroneous results if coal shipments are a blend of low and high rank coals
9. Dulong's Formula
 GCV(db) = 333xC(db) + 1442(H(db)  O(db) / 8) + 93xS(db)
GCV is in (kJouls/kg dry basis). C, H, O, S as percent on a dry basis